# PHP Operators

Updated: April 15th, 2022, 05:57:41 IST
Published: April 13th, 2022

## PHP Operators

PHP define the operators in the following groups:

• 1. Arithmetic Operators
• 2. Assignment Operators
• 3. Comparison Operators
• 4. Incrementing/Decrementing Operators
• 5. Logical operators
• 6. String operators
• 7. Array operators
• 8. Conditional assignment operators
• 9. Operator Precedence
• 10. Bitwise Operators
• 11. Error Control Operators
• 12. Execution Operators
• 13. Type Operators

## PHP Arithmetic Operators

The PHP arithmetic operators are used in conjunction with numeric data to execute basic arithmetic operations like as addition, subtraction, multiplication, and so on.

``````<?php
// \$x is a variable that contains value 10
\$x = 10;
// \$y is a variable that contains value 6
\$y = 6;

// PHP Arithmetic Operators
echo \$x + \$y; // (+) Addition result: Sum of \$x and \$y
echo "<br/>";

echo "Subtraction:";
echo \$x - \$y; // (-) Subtraction result: Difference of \$x and \$y
echo "<br/>";

echo "Multiplication:";
echo \$x * \$y; // (*) Multiplication result: Product of \$x and \$y
echo "<br/>";

echo "Division:";
echo \$x / \$y; // (/) Division result: Quotient of \$x and \$y
echo "<br/>";

echo "Modulus:";
echo \$x % \$y; // (%) Modulus result: Remainder of \$x and \$y
echo "<br/>";

echo "Exponentiation:";
echo \$x ** \$y; // (**) Exponentiation result: Result of raising \$x to the \$y'th power
?>
``````

Output: Output: Arithmatic Operators in PHP

## PHP Assignment Operators

The PHP assignment operators are used with numeric values to write a value to a variable.

The most common assignment operator in PHP is "=". It means that the left operand gets set to the value of the assignment expression on the right.

``````<?php

// PHP Assignment Operators
echo "Assignment:";
\$a = 100;
echo \$a; // (=) Assignment result: The left operand gets set to the value of the expression on the right
echo "<br/>";

\$x = 10;
\$y = 5;
echo "x=".\$x.", y=".\$y."<br/>";

\$x += \$y;
echo \$x;  // (+) Addition \$x += \$y means \$x = \$x + \$y
echo "<br/>";

echo "Subtraction:";
\$x -= \$y;
echo \$x;  // (+) Subtraction \$x -= \$y means \$x = \$x - \$y
echo "<br/>";

echo "Multiplication:";
\$x *= \$y;
echo \$x;  // (*) Multiplication \$x *= \$y means \$x = \$x * \$y
echo "<br/>";

echo "Division:";
\$x /= \$y;
echo \$x;  // (/) Division \$x /= \$y means \$x = \$x / \$y
echo "<br/>";

echo "Modulus:";
\$x %= \$y;
echo \$x;  // (%) Modulus \$x %= \$y means \$x = \$x % \$y
echo "<br/>";

?>
``````

Output: Output: Assignment Operators in PHP

## PHP Comparison Operators

The PHP comparison operators are used to compare two values (number or string).

1. == Equal \$x == \$y Returns the value true if \$x is equal to \$y
2. === Identical \$x === \$y Returns the value true if \$x is equal to \$y, and they are of the same type.
3. != Not equal \$x != \$y Returns the value true if \$x is not equal to \$y
4. <> Not equal \$x <> \$y Returns the value true if \$x is not equal to \$y
5. !== Not identical \$x !== \$y Returns the value true if \$x is not equal to \$y, or they are not of the same type
6. > Greater than \$x > \$y Returns the value true if \$x is greater than \$y
7. < Less than \$x < \$y Returns the value true if \$x is less than \$y
8. >= Greater than or equal to \$x >= \$y Returns the value true if \$x is greater than or equal to \$y
9. <= Less than or equal to \$x <= \$y Returns the value true if \$x is less than or equal to \$y
10. <=> Spaceship \$x <=> \$y Returns an integer less than, equal to, or greater than zero, depending on if \$x is less than, equal to, or greater than \$y. Introduced in PHP 7.

## PHP Increment / Decrement Operators

The PHP increment operators are used to increment / increase a variable's value.

The PHP decrement operators are used to decrement / decrease a variable's value.

1. ++\$x (Pre-increment) Increments the value \$x by one, then returns the value \$x
2. \$x++ (Post-increment) Returns the value \$x, then increments the value \$x by one
3. --\$x (Pre-decrement) Decrements the value \$x by one, then returns the value \$x
4. \$x-- (Post-decrement) Returns the value \$x, then decrements the value \$x by one

## PHP Logical Operators

The PHP logical operators are used to combine conditional statements.

1. And (and) \$x and \$y Returns the value True if both \$x and \$y are true
2. Or (or) \$x or \$y Returns the value True if either \$x or \$y is true
3. Xor (xor) \$x xor \$y Returns the value True if either \$x or \$y is true, but not both
4. And (&&) \$x && \$y Returns the value True if both \$x and \$y are true
5. Or (||) \$x || \$y Returns the value True if either \$x or \$y is true
6. Not (!) !\$x Returns the value True if \$x is not true

## PHP String Operators

PHP has two operators that are specifically built for strings to use.

1. . Concatenation \$txt1 . \$txt2 It means Concatenation of \$txt1 and \$txt2
2. .= Concatenation assignment \$txt1 .= \$txt2 Appends (addition) the variables value of \$txt2 to \$txt1

## PHP Array Operators

The PHP array operators are used to compare arrays.

1. + Union \$x + \$y Union of \$x and \$y
2. == Equality \$x == \$y Returns true if \$x and \$y have the same key/value pairs
3. === Identity \$x === \$y Returns true if \$x and \$y have the same key/value pairs in the same order and of the same types
4. != Inequality \$x != \$y Returns true if \$x is not equal to \$y
5. <> Inequality \$x <> \$y Returns true if \$x is not equal to \$y
6. !== Non-identity \$x !== \$y Returns true if \$x is not identical to \$y

## PHP Conditional Assignment Operators

The PHP conditional assignment operators are used to set a value based on the conditions:

1. ?: Ternary \$x = expr1 ? expr2 : expr3 Returns the value of \$x. The value of \$x is expr2 if expr1 = TRUE. The value of \$x is expr3 if expr1 = FALSE
2. ?? Null coalescing \$x = expr1 ?? expr2 Returns the value of \$x. The value of \$x is expr1 if expr1 exists, and is not NULL. If expr1 does not exist, or is NULL, the value of \$x is expr2. Introduced in PHP 7